SELECTED SOURCES FOR MATERIAL IN SPECIFIC CHAPTERS
Although scholars can be generally expected to be more reliable than popular writers, even they can show remarkable biases in their work. As in any scholarly field, Buddhologists have come to widely different conclusions on some of the most basic aspects of the Buddhist religion. Thus any student attempting to learn of the tradition from scholarly works is well-advised to check a number of authorities before coming to any fixed conclusions.
The following selection, which makes no pretense at being exhaustive, is designed to offer an introduction to the scholarly literature, listing three sorts of works: those that are standard in the field, those that the authors of BR have found especially helpful, and those that show some of the range of scholarly opinion on controversial subjects.
For background on the setting of the Buddha's Awakening, students can consult the following works.
Basham, A. L., History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas. London: Luzac, 1951. Excellent, detailed survey of another Samana sect, contemporary to the Buddha.
Fairservis, Walter A., The Roots of Ancient India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975. Detailed archaeological study of early Indic civilization.
Gonda, Jan, Vedic Literature: Samhitas and Brahmanas. Wiesbaden, 1975. An authoritative book by a fine scholar.
Hopkins, Thomas J., The Hindu Religious Tradition, 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1982. See especially the first chapters and the bibliography.
Jaini, Padmanabh S., The Jaina Path of Purification. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Treats another Samana school from the Buddha's time.
Jayatilleke, K. N., Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1963. Sophisticated, thorough-going study of early Buddhist logic, epistemology, and semantics, somewhat marred by the author's attempts to make Buddhist thought respectible in terms of Logical Positivism. Excellent survey of sramana movement, pp. 69-168.
Johnson, Willard, Poetry and Speculation of the Rg Veda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Describes the early development of the Sanskrit world view, discussing many Buddhist themes.
Warder, A. K., Outline of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1971. Contains excellent discussions of the sramana movements, Lokayata in particular, and of the influence of astronomy on the Indian world view.
Bareau, Andre, Recherches sur la biographie du bouddha. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1963. Exhaustive comparative study of the Pali sources, aimed at disproving Frauwallner's thesis (below) about the original biography of the Buddha.
Beyer, Experience, contains a lively translation from Cantos 13 and 14 of Asvaghosa's Buddhacarita (Acts of the Buddha), on the Awakening, pp. 186-197.
Conze, Edward, Buddhist Scriptures. Baltimore: Penguin, 1959. Gives a condensed translation of the Buddhacarita, pp. 34-66.
Cummings, Mary, The Lives of the Buddha in the Art and Literature of Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1982.
Frauwallner, E., The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings
of Buddhist Literature. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio
ed Estremo Oriente, 1956. Advances the thesis that there was originally
a full biography of the Buddha that was then lost except for fragments
preseved in the early canons.
Johnston, E. H., trans., The Buddhacarita, Or, Acts of the Buddha. 3d ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1984. The best complete translation, with an excellent introduction.
Karetsky, Patricia Eichenbaum, The Life of the Buddha: Ancient Scriptural and Pictorial Traditions. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992.
Nakamura, Hajime, Gotama Buddha. Los Angeles: Buddhist Books International, 1977. A short, scholarly retelling of the life.
Ñanamoli, Bhikkhu, The Life of the Buddha. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1972. Life and teachings of the Buddha selected from Pali sources. One of the best books to use as a "first reader" for Pali Buddhism.
Narada Thera, The Buddha and His Teachings. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1988 (reprint).
Reynolds Frank E., and Charles Hallisey, "The Buddha," in Kitagawa and Cummings, Buddhism and Asian History: 29-49. Surveys the concept of "Buddha" in all its forms.
Reynolds, Frank E., "The Many Lives of Buddha: A Study of Sacred Biography and Theravada Tradition," in Reynolds, Frank E. and Donald Capps, eds., The Biographical Process. The Hague: 1976.
Thomas, E. J., The Life of the Buddha as Legend and History. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1927. Readable, scholarly, standard.
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 38-83, 331-349.
Cowell, E. B., ed., Jataka Stories. Three volumes. (London: Pali Text Society, 1956; there is also a more recent reprint by Motilal Banarsidass.) Very free translations of the canonical and commentarial text of the Pali Jatakas.
Horner, I. B., Ten Jataka Stories (London, 1957; there is also a more recent reprint by Mahamakut Press, Bangkok). Very literal translations.
Jones, John Garrett, Tales and Teachings of the Buddha: The Jataka Stories in Relation to the Pali Canon. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979.
Many children's versions of the more popular Jataka tales have been issued, both in Asia and in the West. An interesting study could be made of how they are altered in becoming modern children's stories.
Gelman, H. S., et al., trans., Petavatthu: Stories of the Departed, & Vimanavatthu: Stories of the Mansions. London: Pali Text Society, 1974. Translations of relatively late Pali texts in which hungry ghosts and devas appear to meditators to recount their mode of life and their actions, while human, that led to such a rebirth.
Haldar, J. R. ,Early Buddhist Mythology. New Delhi: Manohar, 1977. A study of little-known subjects relating to early Buddhism.
Law, B. C., The Buddhist Conception of Spirits. Varanasi, India: Bharatiya Publishing House, 1974. (Reprint from 1936.)
-----, Heaven and Hell in Buddhist Perspective. Varanasi, India: Bharatiya Publishing House, 1973. (Repreint from 1925.)
Matsunaga, Daigan and Alicia Matsunaga, The Buddhist Concept of Hell. New York: Philosophical Library, 1972. From the Vedas through Mahayana.
McDermott, James P., "Karma and Rebirth in Early Buddhism," in Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980): 165-192.
Renou, Louis, et Jean Filliazat, L'lnde classique. Tome 1 (Nos. 1-1357). Pans: Payot, 1947. Tome 2 (Nos. 1358-2494). Paris: Imprimeries Nationale, 1953. The standard topical encyclopedia of Indology. Tome 2, pp. 315-608, presents everything the fledgling scholar should learn about Buddhism and much that is new to veterans. On pantheon, see Nos. 1029, 1077-1079, 1086-1087, 2266-2272.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Wings to Awakening (Barre, Mass.: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1996), also available at AI [M]. On karma, see sections I/A and I/B.
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 289-291, 308 330.
Bodhi, Bhikkhu, trans., The Great Discourse on Causation: The Mahanidana Sutta and its Commentaries. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1984. Contains a clear introduction and appendix giving the commentarial and Abhidhamma explanations of dependent co-arising.
Jayatilleke, Theory of Knowledge, pp. 445-457.
Johansson, Rune E. A., The Dynamic Psychology of Early Buddhism. London: Curzon, 1979. Pali sources on dependent co-arising, explained with a strong slant from Western psychology.
Kalupahana, David J., Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1975. The most complete treatment of the topic in English. Criticized by Paul Griffiths in On Being Mindless (LaSalle, Il.: Open Court, 1986), p. 32f. For an alternative to both Kalupahana and Griffiths, see Thanissaro, below.
Ñanananda, Bhikkhu, Concept and Reality in Early Buddhist Thought. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1976.
-----, The Magic of the Mind. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1974. This work and preceding one treat dependent co-arising in the context of early Buddhist psychology.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Wings to Awakening . On dependent co-arising, see Introduction and section III/H/iii.
Thomas, E. J., The History of Buddhist Thought. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1933. On dependent co-arising, see pp. 58-70.
Warder, Indian Buddhism. On dependent co-arising, pp. 107-156.
Jayatilleke, Theory of Knowledge, pp. 382-401. On faith.
Ñanamoli, Life, pp. 206-256. On the four noble truths.
The following five books give a sense of the current range of opinion on the not-self doctrine:
Collins, Steven, Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Hamilton, Sue. Identity and Experience: The Constitution of the Human Being According to Early Buddhism. London: Luzac Oriental, 1996. A study of the five aggregates as explained in the Sutta Pitaka.
Harvey, Peter, The Selfless Mind. Surrey: Curzon Press, 1995,
Perez-Ramon, Joacquin, Self and Non-Self in Early Buddhism. The Hague: Mouton, 1980.
Thanissaro, Wings to Awakening, sections II.G and III.H.i.
Most scholarly works on early Buddhist meditation tend to follow
The Path of Purification, the fifth-century C.E. work by
Buddhaghosa, in positing a radical split between the two main
forms of Buddhist meditation, tranquility meditation and insight
meditation, even though the earlier sources view the two forms
as two aspects of a single, unified process. A sample of works
following Buddhaghosa is included under the bibliography for chapter
7, as they reflect Sri Lankan and Burmese practice more accurately
than they do earlier accounts of Buddhist meditation.
Two recent works that focus on early Buddhist meditation, treating tranquility and insight practice as two aspects of a single process:
Gethin, R. M. L., The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiya Dhamma. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992. A scholary study of Pali and Sarvastivadin sources [M].
Thanissaro, Wings to Awakening, sections II/B, III/E, and III/F. [M]
Collins, Steven. Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities: Utopias of the Pali Imaginaire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Avoids discussing nirvana as a possible experience, and instead focuses on it as a literary trope playing a formal, semantic, and syntactic role in the narrative and discursive thought of the Pali Canon and commentaries.
Johansson, Rune E. A., The Psychology of Nirvana. New York: Doubleday, 1970. Study of early Pali Buddhist thought on nirvana and its attainment, based on close readings of the texts, with interpretations strongly colored by the author's background in Western psychology.
Kasulis, Thomas P., "Nirvana," in Kitagawa and Cummings, Buddhism and Asian History: 395-408. A compact survey of how a wide variety of Buddhist traditions view nirvana.
Katz, Nathan, Buddhist Images of Human Perfection: The Arahant of the Sutta Pitaka Compared with the Bodhisattva and the Mahasiddha. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1982.
Poussin, Louis de La Vallee, Nirvana. Paris, 1925. His mature view on nirvana from a mystical/religious perspective, well developed.
-----, The Way to Nirvana. Cambodge, 1917. Popular lectures by one of the greatest modern Buddhologists.
Stcherbatsky, Theodore, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. Leningrad: Office of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., 1927. An attack on La Vallee Poussin by another great master, arguing from a philosophical interpretation of Nagarjuna's work. REcently reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Mind Like Fire Unbound (Barre, Mass.: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1993), also available at AI [M].
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 117-128, 380-391.
Welbon, Guy Richard, The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968. A readable history of the West's intellectual encounter with Buddhism as instanced in the problem of nirvana.
Chakravarti, Uma, The Social Dimensions of Early Buddhism. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987. The best book on early Buddhist social theories and policies.
Thomas, Life, pp. 89-142.
Wijayaratna, Mohan, Buddhist Monastic Life According to the Texts of the Theravada Tradition. Translated by Claude Grangier and Steven Collins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Chapter 1 gives an interesting account of the origins of the Sangha.
Cook, Elizabeth, ed., Holy Places of the Buddha. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1994.
Ñanamoli, Life, pp. 271-332.
Thomas, Life, pp. 143-164.
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 95-110.
Barua, Dipak Kumar, Viharas in Ancient India: A Survey of Buddhist Monasteries. Calcutta: Indian Publications, 1969.
Horner, I. B., Women Under Primitive Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975 (reprint). Useful early study [W].
Kloppenborg, Ria, The Paccekabuddha: A Buddhist Ascetic. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill 1974. A thorough study of the most neglected of the three Paths of Buddhist practice. A condensed version of this book (1983) is available from the Buddhist Publiction Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Ling, Trevor, The Buddha: Buddhist Civilization in India
and Ceylon. Baltimore: Penguin, 1976.
Narain, A. K., The Indo-Greeks. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.
Pande, G. C., Studies in the Origins of Buddhism. Allahabad, India: University of Allahabad, 1957.
Pardue, Peter, Buddhism: A Brief Account. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Social history.
Tarn, W. W., The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1951.
Varma, Vishvanath Prasad, Early Buddhism and Its Origins. Delhi: Munshiram Monaharlal, 1973.
Wagle, Narendra, Society at the Time of Buddha. New York: Humanities Press, 1967. The social structure of India in the Buddha's time, based on the Pali Canon.
Yu, Chai Shin, Early Buddhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Delhi: Motilal, 1980.
Conze, Edward, Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies. Oxford:
Cassirer, 1967. A collection of articles. The first, "Recent
Progress in Buddhist Studies," first published in 1959-1960,
summarizes the state of scholarship on the Buddhist scriptures
at that time.
l'Inde Classique, Nos. 1940-2169. The best scholarly piece on Buddhist literature.
Lancaster, Lewis, "Buddhist Literature: Its Canon, Scribes and Editors" in The Critical Study of Sacred Texts, ed. Wendy D. O'Flaherty. Berkeley: Berkeley Religious Studies Series, 1979, pp. 215-29.
Lamotte, History, pp. 124-191.
Law, Bimala Churn, A History of Pali Literature (2 vols.).
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1933.
Norman, K. R., Pali Literature, Including the Canonical Literature in Prakrit and Sanskrit of All Hinayana Schools of Buddhism. Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1983.
Thomas, Thought, pp. 261 287. A survey of the Pali Canon
and other Buddhist scriptures.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 201-212; 228-239
Winternitz, Moriz, A History of Indian Literature. Volume 2: Buddhist and Jaina Leterature. Dehli: Motilal Banarsidass.
Efforts to date the formation of the canon, or a determine which parts of the canon are older than others, are usually based more on the authors' subjective notions of how Buddhism "probably" developed than on any objective criteria. Two interesting but failed efforts to date the Canon based on objective criteria--see the discussions in BR on page 53--are included in:
Schopen, Gregory, "Deaths, Funerals, and the Division of Property in a Monastic Code," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice: 473-487.
Warder, A. K., Pali Metre. London: Pali Text Society, 1967. This book is a must-read for anyone who attempts a serious study of Pali poetry, but is generally too technical for the beginning student.
Some of the best translations from the Pali Suttas include:
Carter, John Ross and Malinda Palihawadana, trans., The Dhammapada. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). Contains extensive material from the commentaries and alternative versions of the Dhammapada preserved by other schools.
(The new PTS translation of the Dhammapada--K.R. Norman's The Word of the Doctrine (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1997)--is not recommended, as it takes the principle of literalness to ludicrous extremes.
Ireland, John D., trans., The Itivuttaka: The Buddha's Sayings. (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1991.
-----, trans., The Udana: Inspired Utterances of the Buddha. (Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1990.
Ñanamoli, Bhikkhu, and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1995). The best translation of an entire nikaya.
Norman, K. R., trans., The Elders' Verses I: Theragatha. London: Pali Text Society, 1969.
-----, trans., The Elders' Verses II: Therigatha. Oxford:
Pali Text Society, 1971. Both this translation and the preceding
one are so literal as to lose the poetic flavor of the original,
but no reliable alternative translations are available. Perhaps
the least reliable is the most recent anthology, Songs of Sons
and Daughters of Buddha, by Andrew Schelling and Anne Waldman
(Boston: Shambala, 1996). Even though the verses are billed as
"courageous translations," they are little more than
free riffs that capture neither the words nor the spirit of the
old text. The Therigatha is especially noteworthy as it is the
oldest record of women's religious experience in the world [W].
-----, trans., The Rhinoceros Horn and Other Early Buddhist Poems (Sutta Nipata) London: Pali Text Society, 1985. Again, extremely literal, but there are no other reliable (and plenty of unreliable) translations available.
Walshe, Maurice O'C., trans., The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya. (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1996). Fairly loose in spots, but very readable.
The only complete English translations of the Samyutta and Anguttara Nikayas (from the Pali Text Society) are unreliable. The Buddhist Publication Society offers useful anthologies:
Ireland, John, et. al., trans., Samyutta Nikaya: An Anthology.
Nyanaponika Thera, trans., Anguttara Nikaya: An Anthology.
A useful selection of translations from the Pali Suttas is available at AI.
Comparative studies based on other canons:
Brough, John, ed., The Gandhari Dharmapada. (London: Oxford University Press, 1962). Unfortunately, Brough does not give translations from the Gandhari. To counteract the then-prevalent view that the Pali Canon was the only reliable source on early Buddhism, Brough felt the need to be fairly intemperate in his attacks on it. A useful response to some of his more ill-considered judgments can be found in the notes to Carter and Palihawadana, above.
Minh Chau, Bhiksu Thich, The Chinese Madhyama Agama and the Pali Majjhima Nikaya. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass).
Frauwallner, E., The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings
of Buddhist Literature. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio
ed Estremo Oriente, 1956.
Hirakawa, Akira, trans., Monastic Discipline for the Buddhist Nuns: An English Translation of the Chinese Text of the Mahasamghika-Bhiksuni-Vinaya. Patna: Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute [W].
Horner, I. B., trans., The Book of Discipline. 6 volumes. London: Pali Text Society, 1938-1966. An almost-complete translation of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka--"almost," because the translator decided against translating some of the more sexually explicit passages into English [W].
Prebish, Charles S., Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Pratimoksa Sutras of the Mahasamghikas and Mulasarvastivadins. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975. The introduction, on the rise of Buddhist monasticism, should be read in conjunction with Wijayaratna.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Buddhist Monastic Code: The Patimokkha Training Rules Translated and Explained. Valley Center, CA: Metta Forest Monastery, 1994. Also available at AI.
Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, Sisters in Solitude: Two Traditions
of Buddhist Monastic Ethics for Women. Albany: State University
of New York Press, 1996. Complete translations, with a brief comparative
analysis, of the Chinese Dharmagupta and Tibetan Mulasarvastivada
versions of the Bhiksuni Pratimoksa Sutra [W].
Wijayaratna, Mohan, Buddhist Monastic Life According to the Texts of the Theravada Tradition. Translated by Claude Grangier and Steven Collins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. The best general introduction to the topic of Vinaya and its relation to the Dharma. A good corrective to the work of Sukumar Dutt (see below) [W].
Guenther, Herbert V., Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma. Berkeley, Calif.: Shambhala, 1976.
Jacobson, Nolan Pliny, Buddhism, the Religion of Analysis. London: Feffer & Simons, 1974.
Nyanatiloka, A Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1971.
Nyanaponika, Thera, Abhidamma Studies. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1965.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 218-224.
Watanabe, Fumimaro, Philosophy and its Development in the Nikayas and Abhidhamma. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1983.
Aung, S. Z. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, trans., Points of Controversy. London: Pali Text Society, 1915 (since reprinted). A translation of the Kathavatthu, the Theravada account of the issues that divided the early schools.
Banerjee, Anukul Chandra, Sarvastivada Literature. Calcutta:
World Press, 1979.
Bareau, Andre, Les sectes bouddhiques du Petit Vehicule. Saigon: Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, 1955. A definitive scholarly work.
Chau, Thich Thein, "The Literature of the Pudgalavadins," Journal of the International Asociation of Buddhist Studies 7, no. 1 (1984): 7-40.
-----, "Les Réponses des Pudgalavadins aux critiques des écoles bouddhiques," Journal of the International Asociation of Buddhist Studies 10, no. 1 (1987): 33-53. These two articles are the first scholarly accounts to report the Pudgalavadins' position in their own words.
-----, The Literature of the Personalists of Early Buddhism. Translated by Sara Boin-Webb. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1999. A thorough treatment of the four extant Pudgalavadin treatises preserved in the Chinese canon.
Conze, Edward, Buddhist Thought in India. Hinayana sects,
Dutt, Nalinaksha, Buddhist Sects in India. Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1977. Dated, but the only monograph in English. Should be read in conjunction with Warder and Lamotte.
Funahashi, Issai, et al., "Abhidharmakosa-sastra," in Encyclopaedia of Buddhism (EoB), vol. 1, pp. 58a-63.
Karunaratne, W. S., H. G. A. van Zeyst, and Kogen Mizuno, "Abhidhamma," fascicule 1, pp. 37b-49a, in EoB, ed. G. P. Malalasekera, published by the Government of Sri Lanka. Fascicule 1 appeared in 1961.
Kao Kuan-ju, "Abhidharma-mahavibhasa," EoB, vol. 1, pp. 64b-80a.
Mizuno, Kogen, "Abhidharma Literature," EoB, vol.
1, pp. 64b-80a.
Lamotte, History, pp. 517-592.
Poussin, Louis de La Vallee, trans., Abhidharmakosabhasyam.
Translated from the French by Leo M. Pruden. Berkeley: Asian Humanities
Press. Annotated translation of Vasubandhu's masterwork, the crowning
piece of the Abhidharma movement.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 212-218; 239-242; 272-278; 288-330; 341-347
Stcherbatsky, Theodore, The Central Conception of Buddhism and the Meaning of the Word "Dharma." London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1923. Reprint by Susil Gupta, Calcutta, 1956; more recently by Motilal Banarsidass. A brief interpretive exposition of the Abhidharmakosa's doctrine.
Willemen, C., et. al. Sarvastivada Buddhist Scholasticism. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1997.
Lamotte, History, pp. 223-259
Nikam, N. A., and Richard McKeon, The Edicts of Asoka.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959. Translates the edicts.
Przyluski, Jean, The Legend of Emperor Asoka in Indian and Chinese Texts. Calcutta: Mukhopadhyay, 1967.
Seneviratna, Anuradha, ed., King Asoka and Buddhism. Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1994.
Strong, John, The Legend of King Asoka. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983. Sensitive translation and discussion of the Asokavadana, the Sarvastivadin legend of Asoka.
Tharpar, Romila, Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 243-271
Anesaki, M., "Ethics and Morality (Buddhist)," ERE,
vol. 5, pp. 447b 455b.
Auboyer, Jeannine, Daily Life in Ancient India (from approximately 200 B.C.E. to 700 C.E.). New York: Macmillan, 1965. Contains information on early Indian (including Buddhist) worship and life.
Blackstone, Kathryn R., Women in the Footsteps of the Buddha:
Struggles for Liberation in the Therigatha. London: Curzon,
Davids, T. W. Rhys, Buddhist India. Delhi: Motilal Banaradass, 1980 (reprint). Religious life in the early centuries.
Dutt, Nalinaksha, Early Monastic Buddhism. Calcutta: Calcutta Oriental Book Agency, 1960.
Dutt, Sukumar, Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1962. See note under Wijayaratna, above, section [5.3.4].
-----, Early Buddhist Monachism. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1960.
Geden, A. S., "Monasticism (Buddhist)," ERE, vol. 8, pp. 797a-802b.
Horner, Living Thoughts, pp. 74-75, 88 138.
Keown, Damien, The Nature of Buddhist Ethics. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992).
Murcott, Susan, The First Buddhist Women. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1991. A feminist analysis of the Therigatha [W].
Olivelle, Patrick, The Origin and Early Development of Buddhist Monachism. Colombo: Gunasena, 1974.
Ray, Reginald A., Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Presents a valuable portrait of the "three-tiered" structure of the early Buddhist community--forest monks, town monks, and lay supporters--but the author's assertion that the Vinaya was primarily a town-monk project is based on a partial and inaccurate reading of the texts.
Schopen, Gregory. Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archaeology, Epigraphy, and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996. Important in the sense that it is controversial and heavily promoted by those who share the author's point of view. Best read by someone with a firm grasp of debating technique and good access to the sources cited by the author.
Snodgrass, Adrian, The Symbolism of the Stupa. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asian Studies Program, 1985.
Warder, Indian Buddhism. On lay Buddhism, pp. 187-200
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 91-94, 392-421, 441-481.
Wilson, Liz. Charming Cadavers: Horrific Figurations of the Feminine in Indian Buddhist Hagiographic Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996 [W].
Zysk, Kenneth G., Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
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