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Bibliography (continued)


[5.7.1] General

Aronson, Harvey B., Love and Sympathy in Theravada Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980. An excellent study: readable, insightful.

Bechert, Heinz, Buddhismus, Staat und Gesellschaft in den Landern des Theravada Buddhismus. 3 volumes. Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1966, 1967, 1973.

-----, "Sangha, State, Society, 'Nation': Persistence of Tradition in 'Post-Traditional' Buddhist Societies," Daedalus, Winter 1973: 85-95.

-----, "Theravada Buddhist Sangha: Some General Observations on Historical and Political Factors in Its Development," Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 29 (1969-1970): 761-778.

Bodhi, Bhikkhu, ed., A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993. A translation, with through notes and explanatory essays, of the Abhidhammattha Sangaha, which for 800 years has been the basic textbook on Abhidhamma used in Theravada countries.

Bond, George, The Word of the Buddha: The Tipitaka and its Interpretation in Theravada Buddhism. Colombo: Gunasena, 1982. Analysis of the approaches developed by the Theravada school for explicating the Pali Canon.

Coedes, George, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1968.

-----, The Making of Southeast Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Gombrich, Richard F.,Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988.

Jayatilleke, K. N., The Message of the Buddha. New York: Free Press, 1974. Discussions of Buddhist topics from a modern Theravadin point of view.

Law, Bimala Churn, Buddhaghosa. Bombay: Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society, 1946.

Lester, Robert C., Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1973.

Ling, Trevor, Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada Buddhism. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1962.

Ñanamoli Thera, trans., The Minor Readings and Illustrator. London: Pali Text Society, 1960. This translation of the Khuddakapatha and its commentary is a good introduction to basic Theravada doctrine and the commentarial literature as a whole.

-----,The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1991. Superb translation of the work that defines Theravada doctrine in Sri Lanka and Burma, with a fine introduction by the translator.

Rahula, Walpola, What the Buddha Taught. New York: Grove Press, 1974. A very popular work, read widely both in the West and Asia; presents the basic doctrines of early Buddhist thought in modern rationalist dress. One of the clearest statements of modern scholarly "Protestant Buddhism."

Smith, Bardwell, ed., Religion and Legitimation of Power in Sri Lanka; Religion and Legitimation of Power in Thailand, Laos, and Burma. Both Chambersburg, Pa.: Anima Books, 1978. Collections of essays on religion and politics in Theravada countries.

Swearer, Donald K., The Buddhist World of Southeast Asia. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995. An up-to-date survey, touching on just about everything related to the subject.

[5.7.2] Sri Lanka

Adikaram, E. W., Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Cultural Centre, 1994 (reprint). Excellent, informative study, based on what the commentarial literature reveals about its early social context.

Bartholomeusz, Tessa J., Women under the Bo Tree: Buddhist Nuns in Sri Lanka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Excellent study. [W]

Bond, George, The Buddhist Revival in Sri Lanka. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1992. An analysis of modern developments in Sri Lankan Buddhism. Less provocative than Gombrich and Obeyesekere on the same topic.

Carrithers, Michael, "'They will be Lords upon the Island': Buddhism in Sri Lanka," in Bechert and Gombrich, The World of Buddhism: 133-146.

Evers, Hans-Dieter, Monks, Priests and Peasants: A Study of Buddhism and Social Structure in Central Ceylon. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1972.

Gombrich, Richard F., Buddhist Precept and Practice. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1991. An analysis of religious practices in rural Sri Lanka. This is an updated and improved version of the author's earlier Precept and Practice.

-----, and Gananath Obeyesekere, Buddhism Transformed: Religious Change in Sri Lanka. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. Modern developments in Sri Lanka.

Gunawardana, R.A.L.H., Robe and Plough: Monasticism and Economic Interest in Early Medieval Sri Lanka. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1979. Thorough study of the Sri Lankan Sangha from the 8th to the 12th century, a period in which monastic fiefdoms rose to their highest power, were destroyed by outside invasions, and then were replaced by a system of monastic governance that has shaped the Theravada tradition--both in Sri Lanka and in Southeast Asia--up to the present era. Emphasizes economic and political issues over doctrinal ones.

Holt, John Clifford, Buddha in the Crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Holt, John Clifford. The Religious World of Kirti 'Sri: Buddhism, Art, and Politics of Late Medieval Sri Lanka. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. A study of the Kandyan king responsible for the Buddhist revival of the eighteenth century.

Ludowyk, E. F. C., The Footprint of the Buddha. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1958. Description of the monuments of "old Ceylon."

Malalgoda, Kitsiri, Buddhism in Sinhalese Society, 1750-1900: A Study of Religious Revival and Change. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Prothero,Stephen R., The White Buddhist: The Asian Odyssey of Henry Steele Olcott. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Rahula, Walpola, History of Buddhism in Ceylon. Colombo, Srl Lanka: M. D. Gunasena, 1956. Treats period from third century B C.E to tenth century C.E.

-----, The Heritage of the Bhikkhu. New York: Grove Press, 1974. Argues the case for the legitimacy of modern political involvement by Sri Lankan monks, based on a reading of the traditional political role of the Sri Lankan Sangha.

Seneviratne, H. L., Rituals of the Kandyan State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Describes the ritual at the Palace of the Sacred Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka.

Smith, Bardwell L., ed., The Two Wheels of Dhamma. Chambersburg, Pa.: American Academy of Religion, 1972. Important work on Sri Lankan Buddhism.

Trainor, Kevin, Relics, Ritual, and Representation in Buddhism: Rematerializing the Sri Landan Theravada Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. The best study yet of the relic cult in Theravada Buddhism.

[5.7.3] Southeast Asia

Bizot, Francois, Les bouddhismes des Thais. Bangkok, 1993. General survey of the Tantric and Reform "Buddhisms" of Thailand by a scholar whose life work has been tracking down the remnants of Tantrism in mainland southeast Asia.

Brereton, Bonnie P., Thai Tellings of Phra Malai. Tempe: Arizona State University, 1995. A study of a Thai story, chanted a funerals, that desribes a monk's visionary journey through the worlds of the afterlife, ending with a vision of Maitreya.

Bunnag, Jane, Buddhist Monk, Buddhist Layman. London: Cambridge University Press, 1973. Good study of "domesticated" Buddhism in Thailand.

Cabaton, Antoine, "Cambodia," ERE, vol. 3, pp. 155a-167a. An overall picture of Cambodian religious life.

Damais, Louis-Charles, "Le bouddhisme en Indonesie." In Presence du bouddhisme, by Rene de Berval: 813-824. Saigon: France-Asia, 1959.

Gomez, Luis O. and Hiram W. Woodward, eds., Barabudur: History and Significance of a Buddhist Monument. Berkeley: Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series, 1981.

King, Winston L., A Thousand Lives Away: Buddhism in Contemporary Burma. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964. A perceptive outsider assesses the state of Theravada thought and values in contemporary Burma.

Payutto, Phra Prayudh, Buddhadhamma: Natural Laws and Values for Life. Translated by Grant A. Olson. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995. Interpretation of Theravada doctrine for modern urban Thais. Excellent introduction by the translator.

Reynolds, Mani and Frank, The Three Worlds According to King Ruang. Berkeley, Calif.: Asian Humanities Press, 1980. Translation of an early medieval Thai classic on Buddhist cosmology.

Sarkisyanz, E., Buddhist Backgrounds of the Burmese Revolution. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965.

Spiro, Melford E., Buddhism and Society. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. An anthropological study of the way in which classic Buddhist teachings are transformed in actual contemporary practice. Unfortunately, the author has a limited notion of what those teachings are; and, doubly unfortunately, few authors have been permitted into Burma/Myanmar in recent years to provide more up-to-date and better-informed studies on the role of Buddhism in contemporary life there.

-----, Burmese Supernaturalism. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967. An anthropologist looks at the total religious system of the Burmese. See especially "Supernaturalism and Buddhism," pp. 246-280. This book sticks closer to the author's fieldwork than the above book, and thus is the stronger of the two.

Strachan, Paul, Pagan: Art and Architecture of Old Burma. Whiting Bay, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1989. Most up-to-date account of the history of Pagan and its religion. Beautifully illustrated.

Strong, John, The Legend and Cult of Upagupta: Sanskrit Buddhism in North India and Southeast Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. Excellent study of an apparently Sarvastivadin cult surviving from the centuries when Theravada reforms movements had not yet come to dominate Thai and Burmese Buddhism.

Swearer, Donald K., Wat Haripuñjaya: A Study of the Royal Temple of the Buddha's Relic, Lamphun, Thailand. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1976. Excellent study of a northern Thai temple complex and its varied activities.

Swearer, Donald K., and Sommai Premchit. The Legend of Queen Cama: Bodhiramsi's Camadevivamsa, a Translation and Commentary. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998. A traditional account of how Buddhism was established in northern Thailand. [W]

Tambiah, S. J., Buddhism and the Spirit Cults in Northeast Thailand. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1970. Masterful study of the world of rituals, Buddhist and non-Buddhist, in one of the least "reformed" areas of Thailand.

-----, World Conqueror and World Renouncer. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976. Important study of the Thai Sangha and Buddhist polity, although some of the author's informants on contemporary Sangha politics were less than reliable.

Terwiel, B. J., Monks and Magic, An Analysis of Religious Ceremonies in Central Thailand. London: Curzon Press, 1975. Gives the rural Thai rice farmer's view of Buddhism. Written by a participant-observer anthropologist who joined the Sangha to describe the power exchange between monk and peasant.

Wells, Kenneth E., Thai Buddhism, Its Rites and Activities. Bangkok: Christian Bookstore, 1960 (reprint). A straight description of ceremonies, liturgies, and festivals.

Yoe, Shway (pseudonym of James George Scott), The Burman, His Life and Notions. London: Macmillan, 1896. Now in paperback. A sympathetic and informative classic.

[5.7.4] Forest Traditions [M]

The major weakness of Strong EB in covering Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia is the absence of readings on the forest traditions. For balance, the following works should be consulted:

Carrithers, Michael, The Forest Monks of Sri Lanka. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combines anthropology, history, and textual study to analyze modern (19th and 20th century) movements to revive the moribund forest tradition in Sri Lanka. Quite a sensitive and intelligent work, although the author presents his material largely with an eye to showing why he feels that one movement--the samsthava founded by Ven. Jinavamsa--has been the most successful.

Kamala Tiyavanich, Forest Recollections: Wandering Monks in Twentieth-Century Thailand. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997. Contains many interesting quotations, drawn from autobiographies and hagiographies, describing the forest adventures of the monks of the Kammatthana tradition. However, the author's thesis concerning the place of that tradition in modern Thai Buddhist history entails many serious omissions and distortions of the facts.

Kornfield, Jack, ed., Living Buddhist Masters. Santa Cruz, Calif.: Unity Press, 1977. (Recently re-released as Living Dharma (Boston: Shambala), as most of the masters are now dead.) Writings by modern Thai and Burmese mediation masters, most but not all from the forest. Heavily edited. [W]

----- and Paul Breiter, eds., A Still Forest Pool: The Insight Meditation of Achaan Chah. Wheaton, Il.: Theosophical Publishing House, 1985. The only commercially available book of teachings by a master of the Kammatthana tradition.

Nanayon, Upasika Kee, An Unentangled Knowing. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1996. An earlier, American edition of this book, printed for free distribution, included an essay by the translator placing Upasika Kee Nanayon in the context of the social dynamic of Theravadin practice. This essay, along with the booklets that made up this book, is now available on AI. [W]

Swearer, Donald K., ed., Me and Mine: Selected Essays of Bhikkhu Buddhadasa. Albany: SUNY Press, 1989. Translations, heavily edited, with a scholarly introduction.

Tambiah, S. J., The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Excellent survey of the history of Theravadin forest movements; very superficial and at times misinformed analysis of the present-day situation in Thailand. On the Kammatthana tradition, consult Taylor.

Taylor, J. L., Forest Monks and the Nation-state. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, 1993. Somewhat hard to obtain, but the only reliable full-length scholarly study of the Kammatthana tradition.

Teich, Anne, ed., Blooming in the Desert: Favorite Teachings of the Wildflower Monk Taungpulu Sayadaw. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1996. Life and teachings of a Burmese forest monk.

Teachings of the Kammatthana tradition have been translated into English for free distribution, but most are hard to obtain in book form. A large selection is available on the WorldWideWeb at AI.

[5.7.5] Theravada Meditation [M]

Works on meditation following the commentarial view of the radical split between tranquility and insight practice, and by Westerners who have studied in centers that adopt that view:

Beyer, Experience, pp. 79-99.

Byles, Marie M., Journey into Burmese Silence. London: George Allen 8r Unwin, 1962. A plucky Australian lady in Burmese meditation centers. Informative about Burma and its religion, as well as about what happens when one meditates. [W]

Gunaratana, Henepola, The Path of Serenity and Insight: An Explanation of the Buddhist Jhanas. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1985. Places more emphasis on jhana (dhyana) practice than do the other works in this category, but nevertheless accepts Buddhaghosa's view that jhana is not necessary for Awakening.

King, Winston, Theravada Meditation: The Buddhist Transformation of Yoga. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1992.

Lerner, Eric, Journey of Insight Meditation: A Personal Experience of the Buddha's Way. New York: Schocken Books, 1977. An expenence of vipassana meditation.

Nyanaponika Thera, The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1973. Deals with Satipatthana (mindfulness) meditation from the point of view of the Mahasi Sayadaw tradition.

Solé-Leris, Amadeo, Tranquility and Insight. London, 1986.

Soni, R. L., The Only Way to Deliverance. Boulder, Colo.: Prajna Press, 1980. Uses Theravada materials to discuss Buddhist meditation.

Vajiranana, Mahathera, Buddhist Meditation in Theory and Practice. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Gunasena, 1962.

Teachings by Mahasi Sayadaw and U Ba Khin of Burma are available at AI.


The size limitations placed on Strong EB are felt most acutely in the area of east Asian Buddhism. For example, Hakuin--who is hardly typical--is made to stand for the entire Ch'an/Zen/Son tradition; the major doctrinal schools are not represented at all. We have therefore included a generous selection of primary sources to read in conjunction with chapters 8-10.

[5.8.1] Central Asia

Beckwith, Christopher, The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Emmerick, R. E., A Guide to the Literature of Khotan. Tokyo: Reiyukai, 1979.

Nagel's Encyclopedic Guide to China, 4th ed. Geneva: Nagel, 1979. Good description of present-day Central Asia, with detailed history and description of the caves of Tunhuang.

Puri, B. N., Buddhism in Central Asia. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987. Not especially good, but the only monograph on the subject.

Snellgrove, David L., Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan Successors. Vol. 2. Boston: Shambhala, 1987. Contains the best introduction to Central Asian Buddhism.

Soper, Alexander C., trans., Arts of China: Buddhist Cave Temples, New Researches. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969.

Stein, Sir Aurel, Serindia (5 vols.). Oxford: 1921; Ancient Khotan, Oxford: 1907; Innermost Asia, Oxford: 1928; On Ancient Central Asian Tracks, London: 1933. Recently reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.

Waley, Arthur, Ballads and Stories from Tun-huang. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1960.

Whitfield, Roderick and Anne Farrer, Caves of the Thousand Buddhas: Chinese Art from the Silk Route. New York: George Braziller, 1990.

[5.8.2] General Reading on Chinese Buddhism

Buswell, Robert E., ed., Chinese Buddhist Apocrypha. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Excellent set of essays on an important topic.

Chappell, David W., ed., Buddhist and Taoist Practice in Medieval Chinese Society. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.

Ch'en, Kenneth, Buddhism in China, A Historical Survey. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1964. Has at least something on everything. Excellent on historical facts, weak on doctrine and interpretation; extensive bibliography.

-----, The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1973.

de Bary, Wm. Theodore, ed., Sources of Chinese Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960. Pages 306-408 contain Chinese Buddhist texts, well-chosen and well-translated by Leon Hurvitz.

Dunnell, Ruth W. The Great State of White and High: Buddhism and State Formation in Eleventh-Century Xia. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996.

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley and Peter Gregory, eds. Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. Excellent set of essays, with an informative introduction, on the relationship of religion, culture, and social change at a pivotal juncture in Chinese history.

Grant, Beata. Mount Lu Revisited: Buddhism in the Life and Writings of Su Shih. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. Shows the influence of Buddhist language, imagery, and ideas on the work of a major literary figure of the Sung dynasty.

Gregory, Peter N., ed. Sudden and Gradual: Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987. Excellent set of essays covering Ch'an, T'ien-t'ai, Hua Yen, and Chinese arts.

-----, ed. Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986. The heart of this book consists of scholarly essays on Ch'an and T'ien-t'ai meditation texts, and the connections between the two schools. [M]

Haar, B.J. ter. The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.

Hsu Sung-peng, A Buddhist Leader in Ming China: Life and Thought of Han-Shan Te-Ch'ing, 1546-1623. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1979.

Kieschnick, John. The Eminent Monk: Buddhist Ideals in Medieval Chinese Hagiography. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997.

Lopez, Donald S., Jr., ed., Religions of China in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996. An anthology of readings that stresses popular religion, the interaction of the "Three Traditions," and gives room to minority cultures usually excluded from such anthologies. Best read in conjunction with an anthology, such as deBary or Sommers, that provides the more classical sources.

Mair, Victor H. Painting and Performance: Chinese Picture Recitation and Its Indian Genesis. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1988. Excellent study of a performing art that came to China along with Buddhism and helped in its popular propagation.

Mair, Victor, trans., Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way. New York: Bantam Books, 1990. The best translation of this Taoist classic.

Naquin, Susan and Chun-fang Yu, Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Overmyer, Daniel L., Folk Buddhist Religion, Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Robinson, Richard H., Chinese Buddhist Verse (hereafter referred to as Verse). London: John Murray, 1955. Didactic and liturgical hymns from the Chinese Canon.

Saso, Michael and David W. Chappell, eds., Buddhist and Taoist Studies I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1977.

Schipper, Kristofer, The Taoist Body. Translated by Karen C. Duval. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Comprehensive, insightful introduction to all aspects of Chinese Taoism

Shahar, Meir and Robert P. Weller, eds., Unruly Gods: Divinity and Society in China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996. A series of essays showing the ways in which the Chinese view of their pantheon did not merely reflect Chinese society, but interacted with the social order in a more dynamic way.

Sommer, Deborah, ed., Chinese Religion: An Anthology of Sources. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. More up-to-date than deBary, with a better balance on women. Includes not only readings on Chinese Buddhism but also anti-Buddhist writings by Confucian bureaucrats.

Takakusu, Junjiro, The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy, 3rd ed. Honolulu: Office Appliance Co., 1956. Data-rich but opaque textbook material on the Sino-Japanese sects.

Teiser, Stephen F., The Ghost Festival in Medieval China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. An excellent study of one of the most important festivals in medieval popular Chinese Buddhism.

-----, The Scripture on the Ten Kings and the Making of Purgatory in Medieval Chinese Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. Combines textual and ethnographic study to analyse the development of Chinese ideas on the trials one faces in going from one life to the next, and the role these ideas have played in religious practice.

Thompson, Laurence G., Chinese Religion: An Introduction, 4rd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1996. Places Buddhism within the panorama of Chinese religiosity.

Waley, Arthur, "Texts from China and Japan," in Conze, Buddhist Texts, pp. 269-306. Choice morsels that Waley happened to like.

Weinstein, Stanley, Buddhism under the T'ang. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Well-written account of a turbulent time in Chinese Buddhist history. Emphasizes politics, Tantra, and Pure Land.

-----, "The Schools of Chinese Buddhism," in Kitagawa and Cummings, Buddhism and Asian History: 257-265. One of the most original essays in the book.

Wright, Arthur F., Buddhism in Chinese History. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1959. Readable, strong on history, weak on doctrine. See review by Richard H. Robinson, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 79 (1959): 311-318.

Yang, C. K., Religion in Chinese Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961. A sociological approach to the study of Chinese religion.

Yu Chun-fang, "Chinese Women Pilgrims' Songs Glorifying Guanyin," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice: 176-180. [W]

-----,The Renewal of Buddhism in China: Chu-hung and the Late Ming Synthesis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

[5.8.3] First to Tenth Centuries

Gernet, Jacques, Buddhism in Chinese Society: An Economic History (5th to 10th c.). Translated by Franciscus Verellen. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995. Fascinating information on the economics of Chinese Buddhism and the co-opting of the tradition by the upper classes during the T'ang dynasty. Tends to side with the Confucians in regarding Buddhism as a burden on society.

Holcombe, Charles, In the Shadow of the Han: Literati Thought and Society at the Beginning of the Southern Dynasties. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. Focuses on the life and thought of a Buddhist monk, Chih Tun, as an example of the new elite class of literati that arose in the fourth century C.E.

Kohn, Livia, Laughing at the Tao: Debates among Buddhists and Taoists in Medieval China. Fine translation of a text of Buddhist-Taoist debates in the sixth century, with an excellent historical discussion of the political/cultural process by which Buddhism and Chinese culture adapted to one another during the period.

Robinson, Early Madyamika. Concerns the years around 400 C.E., the Buddho-Taoists, and the first serious Chinese attempt to master an Indian treatise system.

Tsai, Kathryn Ann, Lives of the Nuns: Biographies of Chinese Buddhist Nuns from the Fourth to Sixth Centuries. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. Readable translations of the Lives of the Eminent Nuns, with a useful introduction. [W]

Zürcher, Erik, The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972. Social and doctrinal history up to 400 C.E. Readable, thorough, sophisticated, altogether delightful piece of scholarship. THE book to read on the subject of Buddhism's first centuries in China.

See also the article, "Tales of the Lotus Sutra," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice.

[5.8.4] T'ien-t'ai

Chappell, David W., ed., T'ien-t'ai Buddhism. Tokyo: Daiichi-Shobo, 1983. A translation of Chegwan's synopsis of T'ien-t'ai teachings.

de Bary, Chinese Tradition, pp. 349-368.

Donner, Neal, and Daniel B. Stevenson, The Great Calming and Contemplation: A Study and Annotated Translation of the First Chapter of Chih-i's Mo-ho Chih-Kuan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. [M]

Donner, Neal, "Sudden and Gradual Intimately Conjoined: Chih-i's T'ien-t'ai View," in Gregory, Sudden and Gradual: 201-226. A very clear statement of the general outlines of Chih-i's thought.

Hurvitz, Leon, Chih-i (538-597): An Introduction to the Life and Ideas of a Chinese Buddhist Monk. Melanges Chinois et Bouddhiques, XII, Bruges, Belgium, 1963.

Ng Yu-Kwan, T'ien-t'ai Buddhism and Early Madhyamika. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Swanson, Paul L., Foundations of T'ien-t'ai Philosophy. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1989.

See also, Gregory, Traditions of Meditation, above.

[5.8.5] San-lun

de Bary, Chinese Tradition, pp. 333-343.

Liebenthal, Walter, Chao Lun, The Treatises of Seng-chao, 2nd rev. ed. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1968.

Liu, M.-W. Madhyamaka Thought in China. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994.

[5.8.6] Fa-hsiang

de Bary, Chinese Tradition, pp. 343-349.

Sponberg, Alan, Affliction and Awakening: Yogacara Buddhism in T'ang China.

Takakusu, "Amitayur-dhyana-sutra," pp. 80-95.

[5.8.7] Hua-yen

Chang, Garma Chen-chi, The Buddhist Teaching of Totality: The Philosophy of Hwa-yen Buddhism. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971. Includes a translation of Fa-tsang's most approachable work, The Golden Lion.

Cleary, Thomas, Entry into the Inconceivable: An Introduction to Hua Yen Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983.

Cook, Francis H., Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977. Clear, sympathetic introduction to the thought of Fa-tsang.

Gimello, Robert and Peter N. Gregory, Studies in Ch'an and Hua-yen. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983.

Gregory, Peter N., trans., Inquiry into the Origin of Humanity: An Annotated Translation of Tsung-mi's Yuan Jen Lun with a Modern Commentary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996. A fluent translation of one of the works discussed in the following book.

-----,Tsung-mi and the Sinification of Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. A very insightful study, clear and well-presented, of a major Ch'an/Hua-yen patriarch.

Hakeda, Yoshito, The Awakening of Faith. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. A translation of the text that, in some ways, was more influential in the formation of the Hua-yen school than was the Avatamsaka Sutra itself.

Kao Kuan-ju, "Avatamsaka Sutra," EoB 11, vol. 3, pp. 435a-446a.

Suzuki, D. T., "Zen and the Gandavyuha," inEssays in Zen Buddhism, Third Series. London: Rider, 1953: 21-214.

[5.8.8] Pure Land

de Bary, Chinese Tradition, pp. 374-386.

Gomez, Luis O., The Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of measureless Light. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996. "User-friendly" translations, with useful notes and introductions, of both the Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the longer and shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutra, the basic Pure Land text.

Robinson, Verse, pp. 41-45, 64-74. The Pure Land liturgical hymns.

Tanaka, Kenneth K., The Dawn of Chinese Pure Land Buddhist Doctrine. Albany: SUNY Press, 1990.

See also Weinstein, Buddhism under the T'ang, above; and the articles, "Pure Land Buddhist Worship and Meditation in China" and "Death-bed Testimonials of the Pure Land Faithful," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice.

[5.8.9] The Third Period Sect

Hubbard, Jamie, "A Heretical Chinese Buddhist Text," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice: 272-283. A translation, with introduction, of one of the sect's few surviving texts.

[5.8.10] Ch'an [M]

Aitken, Robert, trans., Gateless Barrier. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1990. Translation of one of the great classic k'ung-an collections.

App, Urs, trans., Master Yunmen: From the Record of the Chan Master "Gate of the Clouds." New York: Kodansha America, 1994. Clear translations from, with a good introduction to, the teachers of one of the founders of the Five Houses of Chan.

Buswell, Robert E., Jr., "The 'Short-cut' Approach of K'an-hua Meditation," in Gregory, Sudden and Gradual: 321-377. Buswell later repudiated parts of this article in his book, The Zen Monastic Experience (see bibliography for BR chapter 9), but it still contains much valuable material on the development of k'ung-an mediation.

Chang, Chung-yuan, Original Teachings of Ch'an Buddhism. New York: Vintage, 1971. Useful translations from the Transmission of the Lamp.

Chang, Garma Chen-chi, The Practice of Zen. New York: Harper & Row, 1959. Presents Ch'an/Zen from the viewpoint of a modern Chinese practitioner who has also worked with Tibetan Tantra. Contains some good practical tips on meditation, in addition to history and teachings.

Cleary, Christopher (J. C.), trans., Swampland Flowers: The Letters and Lectures of Zen Master Ta Hui. New York: Grove Press, 1977. Short pieces by the 11th century Ch'an master who pioneered the "crucial phrase" approach to k'ung-an meditation.

Cleary, Thomas and J. C., trans., The Blue Cliff Record. 3 vols. Boston: Shambala, 1992. One of the classic k'ung-an collections.

Cleary, Thomas, trans., The Book of Serenity: One Hundred Zen Dialogues. Hudson, N. Y.: LIndisfarne Press, 1990. Another greath k'ung-an collection.

-----, trans., Zen Dawn: Zen Texts from Tun-huang. Boston: Shambala, 1986.

Dumoulin, Heinrich, Zen Buddhism: A History. 2 volumes. New York: MacMillan, 1988. An updated version of the author's earlier A History of Zen Buddhism. Readable and scholarly, though the author's interpretations sometimes depend on Catholic apologetic concepts.

-----, Zen Enlightenment: Origins and Meaning. New York: Weatherhill, 1979.

Faure, Bernard, Chan Insights and Oversights: An Epistemological Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Deconstructionism meets the Ch'an/Zen tradition. Brilliant, witty, gossipy, but rarely so gauche as to come to any definite conclusions.

-----, The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. A very intelligent book, surveying the entire spectrum of Ch'an/Zen culture. Calls into question many of the myths about the Ch'an/Zen tradition common both to Eastern and to Western scholarship.

Foulk, T. Griffith, "Daily Life in the Assembly," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice: 455-472.

-----, "Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice in Sung Ch'an Buddhism," in Ebrey and Gregory, Religion and Society: 147-194.

Lancaster, Lewis, and Whalen Lai, eds., Early Ch'an in China and Tibet. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1980. Collection of eighteen essays on the development of Ch'an; influences of Indian Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism considered.

Luk, Charles, Ch'an and Zen Teaching. Series 1, 2, 3. London: Rider, 1960-1962. Sloppy translations of many important texts otherwise not accessible. See review by Richard H. Robinson, Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 21 (1962): 368f.

Lynn, Richard John, "The Sudden and Gradual in Chinese Poetry Criticism: An Examination of the Ch'an-Poetry Analogy," in Gregory, Sudden and Gradual: 381-428. An excellent corrective to the many books that see Ch'an as a major influence on Chinese aesthetics.

McRae, John R., The Northern School and the Formation of Early Ch'an Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986. Excellent study that sets the record straight on Shen-hsiu and the Northern School in general.

-----, "The Ox-head School of Chinese Buddhism: From Early Ch'an to the Golden Age," in Gimello and Gregory, Ch'an and Hua-yen Studies: 218-232. On the possible source of the Platform Sutra.

Powell, William F., The Record of Tung-shan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986. Excellent translation, with a very useful historical introduction, of the Record of the first patriarch of the Tsao-tung school.

Sasaki, Ruth Fuller, trans., The Record ed Sayings of Ch'an Master Lin-chi. Kyoto: The Institute for Zen Studies, 1975.

----- et. al., trans., The Recorded Sayings of Layman P'ang. New York: Weatherhill, 1971.

Schloegl, Irmgard, trans., The Zen Teaching of Rinzai. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1979.

Welch, Holmes, The Practice of Chinese Buddhism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967. Based on interviews with refugee Ch'an monks. Readable, scholarly, reliable. One of the best books on any regional variant of modern Buddhist monastic life.

Yampolsky, Philip, trans., The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967. Translation and notes, with an thorough but now somewhat dated introduction. Should be read in conjunction with McRae, above.

See also, Gregory, Traditions of Meditation and Tsung-mi, above.

[5.8.11] Modern China

Chan, Wing-tsit, Religious Trends in Modern China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1953.

Ching, Yu-ing, Master of Love and Mercy: Cheng Yen. Nevada City, CA: Blue Dolphin Publishing. 1995. By no means a scholarly or objective account, but this is the only book available on a nun who is one of contemporary Taiwan's most important religious figures.

Welch, Holmes, Buddhism under Mao. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972. Excellent information on Buddhism in China since 1949.

-----, The Buddhist Revival in China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968. Readable and authoritative.


[5.9.1] Korea

Buswell, Robert E., Jr., The Formation of Ch'an Ideology in China and Korea: The Vajrasamadhi Sutra, A Buddhist Apocryphon. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988. Argues for the Korean provenance of an important early Ch'an/Son text, and for the need to treat the origins of Ch'an and Son as an organic whole.

-----, "Hagiographies of the Korean Monk Wonhyo," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice: 553-562.

------, The Korean Approach to Zen: The Collected Works of Chinul. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983. Translations with an excellent introduction. Abridged version also available under the title, Tracing Back the Radiance. [M]

-----, The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. Excellent, informative study by a man who lived as a monk in a Korean monastery for five years. Much-needed corrective to popular and scholarly writings that abstract Ch'an-Zen-Son teachings from their monastic environment. A good "first book" to read on Zen. [M]

Buzo Adrian and Tony Prince, trans. Kyunyo-jon: The Life, Times, and Songs of a Tenth-Century Korean Monk. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1993.

Cleary, J. C., A Buddha from Korea: The Zen Teachings of T'aego. Boston: Shambhala, 1988. Translation, with an introduction, of T'aego's Record.

Lancaster, Lewis R., The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Lancaster, Lewis R., and C. S. Yu, eds., Assimilation of Buddhism in Korea: Religious Maturity and Innovation in the Silla Dynasty. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1991. Essays of varying quality.

-----, eds., Introduction of Buddhism to Korea: New Cultural Patterns. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1989. Ditto.

Lee, Peter H., Lives of Eminent Korean Monks. Cambndge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969. Collection of traditional biographies.

Mitchell, Stephen, Dropping Ashes on the Buddha. New York: Grove Press, 1976. Contemporary stories and teachings of the Korean Son master Seung Sahn, who has taught in the United States since 1962.

Mu Soeng, Thousand Peaks: Korean Zen--Tradition and Teachers. Cumberland RI: Primary Point Press, 1991. A very readable survey. Includes a chapter on Son nuns. [W]

San, Ku, Nine Mountains. Song Kwang Sa Monastery, 1978. Dharma letters of a contemporary Korean meditation master.

Tae-heng Se Nim, Teachings of the Heart: Zen Teachings of Korean Woman Zen Master Tae-Heng Se Nim. Occidental, CA: Dai Shin Press, 1990. Teachings of a nun who is both a meditation teacher and a healer. [W]

[5.9.2] Vietnam

Nguyen Cuong Tu. Zen in Medieval Vietnam: A Study and Translation of the Thien Uyen Tap Anh. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1998. Questions traditional accounts of the history of Zen in Medieval Vietnam. By far the best book available on the subject of the history of Buddhism in Vietnam.

Nhat Hanh, Thich, Interbeing: Commentaries on the Tiep Hien Precepts. Berkeley: Parallax, 1987.

-----,Vietnam: Lotus in a Sea of Fire. New York: Hill & Wang, 1967. Modern Buddhist response, Vietnamese style, to political and military aggression of many varieties.

-----, Zen Keys: A Zen Monk Examines the Vietnamese Tradition. New York: Anchor Books, 1974. Zen from the Vietnamese viewpoint.

Thien-An, Thich, Buddhism and Zen in Vietnam, in Relation to the Development of Buddhism in Asia. Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1975. The history of Zen in Vietnam. Illustrated.

Thien-Tam, Thich, Buddhism of Wisdom and Faith: Pure Land Principles and Practice. Sepulveda, Calif.: International Buddhist Monastic Institute, 1991. Pure Land from the Vietnamese viewpoint.

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