Bareau, Les sectes bouddhiques, pp. 296-305.
Basham, A.L., ed. Papers of the Date of Kaniska. Leiden:
E.J. Brill, 1968.
Conze, Buddhist Thought in India, pp. 195-204.
Dutt, Nalinaksha, Aspects of Mahayana Buddhism. London: Luzac, 1930.
Kalupahana, David, The Principles of Buddhist Psychology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987. Views the history of the development of Buddhist philosophy and psychology as a story of general decline and capitulation to non-empiricist notions.
Kiyota, Minoru, ed., Mahayana Buddhist Meditation: Theory
and Practice. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978 [M].
Lamotte, Etienne, "Sur la formation du Mahayana," in Asiatica (Festchrift F. Weller). Leipzig, 1954: 381-386.
Pye, Michael. Skilful Means: A concept in Mahayana Buddhism. London: Duckworth, 1978. An excellent study of one of the most important concepts in Mahayana thought, although the author seriously underestimates the originality of the Mahayana use of the concept.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 352-422.
Williams, Paul, Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1989. Good survey of Mahayana, focusing on India and China, but also including discussions of Tibetan and Japanese developments.
Williams, Paul. Altruism and Reality: Studies in the Philosophy of the Bodhicaryavatara. London: Curzon, 1998.
[5.4.2] The Teaching of Emptiness
Conze, Edward, Buddhist Wisdom Books. London: George
Allen & Unwin, 1958 (also New York: Harper & Row, 1972).
Contains Diamond-Cutter Sutra and Heart Sutra; translation with
-----, trans., The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
-----, The Prajnaparamita Literature. The Hague: Mouton,
-----, Selected Sayings from the Perfection of Wisdom. London: Buddhist Society, 1955.
Lamotte, Etienne, L'Enseignement de Vimalakirti (Vimalakirtinirdesa). Louvain, Belgium: Publications Universitaires, 1962. Excellent French translation, with copious notes and introduction, of one of the most important and well-written Mahayana Sutras.
Thurman, Robert A. F., trans., The Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti. A translation of the Vimalakirti-nirdesa Sutra from the Tibetan.
Wayman, Alex, trans., The Lion's Roar of Queen Srimala. A translation of the Srimala Sutra from the Chinese [W].
Of all the Indian Buddhist schools, Madhyamika has attracted
the most scholarly interest. And among the Madhyamikans, Nagarjuna
has attracted the most controversy. These controversies revolve
around two points of contention: whether Nagarjuna was a nihilist,
and whether he should be read on his own or as interpreted by
his later followers in the Madhyamika school, Candrakirti and
Tsongkhapa in particular. The first controversy centers on the
question of whether the more radical elements in his teachings
can rightfully be interpreted outside of the context of his religious
goals. This controversy will probably never be settled, as it
comes down to the same issues that keep philosophers and intellectual
historians in separate academic fields. The second controversy
seems rather pointless, as there should be enough room in this
world for both approaches to Nagarjuna's thought.
Eckel, Malcolm David, To See the Buddha: A Philosopher's Quest for the Meaning of Emptiness. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. An excellent introduction to the world-view of Mahayana religion-and-philosophy, theory-and-practice in general, and that of Bhavaviveka in particular. Presents a strong case for the position that Madhyamika doctrine can be properly understood only when viewed in its religious context.
Garfield, Jay L., The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way: Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Both the translation and the author's notes follow the Gelug interpretation of the text.
Harris, I.C. The Continuity of Madhyamaka and Yogacara in Indian Mahayana Buddhism. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991.
Huntington, C. W., Jr., The Emptiness of Emptiness: An Introduction to Early Indian Madhyamika. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989. A translation, with an extensive introduction and analysis, of Candrakirti's The Entry into the Middle Way. Presents Madhyamika as a radical form of deconstructionism.
Inada, Kenneth K., Nagarjuna. A Translation of His Mularmadhyamaka-
karika with an Introductory Essay. Tokyo: Hokuseido Press,
Kalupahana, David J., Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Albany: SUNY Press, 1986. Presents a strong case for viewing Nagarjuna's more radical positions in the context of the standard Hinayanist elements in his work. The author's argument is weakened, however, by his insistence on forcing Nagarjuna and early Buddhism into the mold of Jamesian Pragmatism.
Lindtner, Christian, Master of Wisdom. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1986. Translations of six of Nagarjuna's works, with an analysis by the translator.
Nagao, Gadjin, Madhyamika and Yogacara: A Study of Mahayana Philosophies. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.
Napper, Elizabeth, Dependent-Arising and Emptiness. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1989. Although this book centers on a translation of a text by Tsongkhapa, the translator's introduction contains the best review available of the literature on Nagarjuna. Puts the other books on Nagarjuna listed here into perspective.
Ramanan, K. V., Nagarjuna's Philosophy as Presented in Maha-Prajnaparamita-Sastra.
Tokyo, 1966; Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1978.
Robinson, Richard H., Early Madhyamika in India and China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967. Read pp. 21-70.
Ruegg, D.S., and L. Schmithausen, eds. Earliest Buddhism.
Madhyamaka. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990.
Sprung, Mervyn, trans., Lucid Exposition of the Middle Way. Boulder, Colo.: Great Eastern, 1980. Translates the essential chapters of Candrakirti's Prasannapada.
Sprung, Mervyn, ed., The Problem of Two Truths in Buddhism and Vedanta. Boston: Reidel, 1973. Contains several interesting articles, including one by A. K. Warder questioning whether Nagarjuna was, in fact, a Mahayanist.
Stcherbatsky, Theodore, The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. Leningrad: Office of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.,1927. Translation and commentary on chapters from the Mulamadhyamaka-karika on causality and nirvana.
Streng, Frederick J., Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press, ]967. A study of Nagarjuna and his vision with respect to the relation between religious awareness and symbolic expression. Contains complete translations of Nagarjuna's two chief works.
Wood, Thomas, Nagarjunian Disputations. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. The latest statement of the nihilist case.
East Asian scholarship has long followed the sixth-century Yogacaran commentators, such as Sthiramati, in interpreting Yogacara as a form of philosophical Idealism, and for decades Western scholars have followed suit. More recent studies, such as Anacker's, Sutton's, and Willis', listed here, have shown that the classical forms of Yogacara doctrine--as in the Lankavatara Sutra and the works of Vasubandhu and Asanga--are not Idealist at all.
Anacker, Stefan, Seven Works of Vasubandhu. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1984. Translations with perceptive introductions. A good place to start on Yogacaran thought.
Cleary, Thomas, trans., The Flower Ornament Scripture. Boston: Shambala, 1983. Complete translation of the immense Avatamsaka Sutra, from the Chinese.
Fukaura, Seibun, "Alaya-vijnana," EoB, vol. 3, pp.
Lamotte, Etienne, La somme du Grand Vehicule d'Asanga (Mahayanasamgraha). Tome 2. Traduction et commentaire. Louvain, Belgium: Museon, 1938. A basic manual of Yogacara.
Poussin, Louis de La Vallee, La Siddhi de Hiuen-tsang. Paris: Geuthner, 1928-1948. Translation of Hsuan-tsang's Ch'eng-wei-shih-lun, a synthesizing commentary on the Thirty Verses of Vasubandhu.
Powers, John. Hermeneutics and Tradition in the Samdhinirmocana
Sutra. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993.
Powers, John, trans., Wisdom of Buddha: The Samdhinirmocana Sutra. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1994. An annotated translation, from the Tibetan, of the essential Yogacara text.
Rahula, Walpola, "Asanga," EoB, vol. 2, pp. 113b-146b.
Sutton, Florin Giripescu, Existence and Enlightenment in the Lankavatara Sutra: A Study in the Ontology and Epistemology of the Yogacara School of Mahayana Buddhism. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991. Presents a strong case against Suzuki's interpretation of the sutra, arguing for an interpretation more in line with continental phenomenology.
Suzuki, D. T., trans., Lankavatara Sutra. London: Kegan Paul, 1932 and 1956.
-----, Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. London: Routledge,
1930. Treats the sutra as presenting a doctrine of Idealistic
Willis, Janice Dean, On Knowing Reality: The Tattvartha Chapter of Asanga's Bodhisattvabhumi. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. One of the first Western works to question the thesis that classical Yogacara was a form of idealism.
Bhattacharyya, Dipak Chandra, Studies in Buddhist Iconography. New Delhi: Manohar, 1978.
Kloetzli, W. Randolph, Buddhist Cosmology: Science and Theology in the Images of Motion and Light. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1983. Contrasts Hinayana and Mahayana cosmologies in terms of their basic metaphors.
Paul, Diana, Women in Buddhism: Images of the Feminine in the Mahayana Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Pioneering study [W].
Batchelor, Stephen, trans., Shantideva: Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1979.
Dayal, Har, The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature. London: Kegan Paul, 1932. (Reprinted, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975.)
Guenther, Herbert V., trans., The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, by Sgam-po-pa. London: Rider, 1959. An excellent Tibetan manual of the Bodhisattva Course. Hard to read because of the translator's idiosyncratic renderings of technical terms.
Santideva, The Bodhicaryavatara. Translated by Kate Crosby and Andrew Skilton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Readable translation, with excellent introductions and notes.
l'Inde Classique, Nos. 2336-2339.
Lamotte, History. Maitreya, pp. 775-788.
-----, "Manjusri," T'oung Pao, vol. 48 (1960), pp. 1 96.
Sponberg, Alan and Helen Hardacre, eds., Maitreya: The Future Buddha. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 480-486.
"Aksobhya," EoB, vol. 3, pp. 363-368a.
"Amita," EoB, vol. 3, pp. 434a-463b.
Birnbaum, Raoul. The Healing Buddha. Boston: Shambhala, 1989.
Fuss, M. Buddhavacana and Dei Verbum: A Phenomenological
and Theological Comparison of Scriptural Inspiration in the Saddharmapundarika
Sutra and in the Christian Tradition. Leiden: E.J. Brill,
Gomex, Luis O., The Land of Bliss: The Paradise of the Buddha of measureless Light. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996. "User-friendly" translations of both the Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the longer and shorter Sukhavativyuha Sutra, the basic Pure Land text. More scholarly translations of the same texts are promised by the translator in a future volume. Includes useful notes and introductions, and a very useful bibliography on Pure Land and related subjects.
Howard, A.F. The Imagery of the Cosmological Buddha. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1986.
Lamotte, Etienne, trans. The Suramgamasamadhi Sutra. Translated into English by Sara Boin-Webb. London: Curzon, 1998.
Lern, H., trans., "The Saddharma-pundarika or the Lotus of the True Law," SBE, vol. 21. Oxford: Clarendon, 1909. An obsolete masterpiece: the only English translation of the Sanskrit version of this text.
The Shinshu Seiten ("The Holy Scripture of Shinshu"), compiled and published by the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii, Honolulu, 1955. The three chief Pure Land Sutras translated from the standard Chinese versions, plus other texts from Chinese and Japanese.
Takakusu, J., trans., "The Amitayur-dhyana-sutra," SBE, vol. 49, pp. 161-201.
Watson, Burton, The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Translated from the Chinese.
Chattopadhyaya, D. ed., Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970. A translation of the history written by the medieval Tibetan monk, based on sources that have since been destroyed. A valuable source on Buddhism's later centuries in India.
Hattori, M., trans., Dignaga on Perception. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Oriental Series, 1968.
Mookerjee, Satkari, Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980. On the school of Dignaga.
Singh, Amar, The Heart of Buddhist Philosophy: Dinnaga and Dharmakirti. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1984. Provides a needed corrective to Mookerjee and Stcherbatsky on Dignaga and Dharmakirti, but unfortunately is one of the most disorganized books imaginable.
Stcherbatsky, Theodore, Buddhist Logic, 2 vols. Leningrad, 1930. Reprint, NewYork: Dover Books, 1962. A study of Dharmakirti.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 443-485. Best introduction to the topic.
Bharati, Agehananda, The Tantric Tradition. New York: Weiser, 1975. Treats both Buddhist and Hindu Tantra; dense.
Dasgupta, Shashibhusan, An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism. Berkeley, Calif: Shambhala, 1974.
-----, Obscure Religious Cults. Calcutta: Firma K. L.
Dowman, Keith, Masters of Mahamudra: Songs and Histories of the Eighty-Four Buddhist Siddhas. Albany: SUNY Press, 1985. Very readable.
George, Christopher S., The Candamaharosana Tantra. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1974.
Guenther, Herbert V., The Tantric View of Life. Boulder, Colo: Shambhala, 1976. Almost as dense as Bharati on same.
-----, The Royal Song of Saraha. Berkeley, Calif.: Shambhala, 1973.
Kinsley, David. Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: The Ten Mahavidyas. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
Kvaerne, Per, An Anthology of Buddhist Tantric Songs. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1977. Translation with introduction to late Buddhist Tantric songs (Caryagiti).
Lorenzen, David L., The Kapalikas and Kalamukhas: Two Lost Saivite Sects. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972. Pathbreaking study of the Saivite sect that formed the model for the Unexcelled Yoga Tantras.
Pott, P. H., Yoga and Tantra. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966. Helpful work for the study of Buddhist Tantra.
Robinson, James B., Buddha's Lions: The Lives of the Eighty-Four Siddhas. Berkeley: Dharma, 1980.
Sanderson, Alexis, "Saivism and the Tantric Traditions," in Sutherland, Stewart, et.al., eds., The World's Religions. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1988. Excellent survey of the various forms of Saivism from which the Buddhist Tantrists took inspiration [W].
Shaw, Miranda, Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. Enthusiastic, well-documented study of the leading role played by women in the Tantric movement. Overturns the earlier male-oriented interpretations of the role of women in the Tantrism [W].
Snellgrove, David L., The Hevajra Tantra. Part 1, Introduction and Translation. London: Oxford University Press, 1959. Readable and well-informed introduction.
-----, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan Successors. Vol 1. Boston: Shambhala, 1987. Excellent study of Indian Tantrism, together with proto-Tantric elements in earlier Mahayana. Best book to read first on the subject of Buddhist Tantrism.
Tucci, Guiseppe, The Theory and Practice of the Mandala. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1973 [M].
-----, Tibetan Painted Scrolls. Vol. 1, The Religious Ideas: Vajrayana. Rome: Libraria cello Stato, 1949.
Warder, Indian Buddhism, pp. 485-506. Offers synopses of a number of important Tantras.
Wayman, Alex, Yoga of the Guhyasamajatantra. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1977.
Aiyappan, A., and P. R. Srinivasan, Story of Buddhism with Special Reference to South India. Madras, India: Government of Madras, 1960.
Banerji, Aparna, Traces of Buddhism in South India. Calcutta: Scientific Book Agency, 1970.
Basu, N. N., Modern Buddhism and Its Followers in Orissa. Calcutta, 1911.
Gellner, David, "Buddhism and Hinduism in the Nepal Valley," in Sutherland, Stewart, et.al., eds., The World's Religions. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1988.
Joshi, Lalmani, Studies in the Buddhistic Culture of India, 2nd rev. ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1977.
Mishra, V. B., Religious Beliefs and Practices of North India during the Early Mediaeval Period. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1973. On Buddhism, pp. 138-145.
Naudou, Jean, Buddhists of Kashmir. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980.
Ram, Rajendra, A History of Buddhism in Nepal A.D. 704-1396. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1978.
Next page (Sections 5.7 thru 5.9) -->
Back to Directory