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Bibliography (continued)


[5.10.1] General

de Bary, Wm. Theodore, ed., Sources of the Japanese Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1958. Essayettes and translations of Buddhist texts, pp. 93-110, 116-175, 190-266. Basic and excellent.

Earhart, H. Byron, Japanese Religion. 3rd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1982.Treats Buddhism as a major strand in the overall complex of Japanese religion. The best thing to read next on Japanese Buddhism.

Eliot, Charles, Japanese Buddhism. London, 1935 and 1959. A great book in its day. Obsolete but not superseded.

Faure, Bernard. The Red Thread: Buddhist Approaches to Sexuality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998. Despite the book's broad title, the primary focus is on the sexual misbehavior of monks in pre-modern Japan.

Goodwin, Janet, Alms and Vagabonds: Buddhist Temples and Popular Patronage in Medieval Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994. A study of how campaigns to support the physical edifice of Japanese Buddhism transformed it into a popular religion.

Kamstra, J. H., Encounter or Syncretism: The Initial Growth of Japanese Buddhism. Leiden Netherlands: Brill, 1967.

Kitagawa, Joseph M., Religion in Japanese History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1966. Up-to-date, well-informed, and informative.

LaFleur, William, The Karma of Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. Very insightful study of the influence of Buddhism on Japanese literature.

Matsunaga, Daigan and Alicia, The Foundation of Japanese Buddhism (2 vols.). Los Angeles: Buddhist Books International, 1974, 1976.

McMullin, Neil, Buddhism and the State in Sixteenth Century Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Morrell, Robert, Early Kamakura Buddhism: A Minority Report. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1987.

Nakamura, Kyoko Motomuchi, trans. Miraculous Stories from the Japanese Buddhist Tradition: The Nihon Ryoiki of the Monk Kyokai. London: Curzon, 1997.

Pilgrim, Richard B., Buddhism and the Arts of Japan. Chambersburg, Pa.: Anima Publications, 1981.

Reader, Ian, et al., Japanese Religions: Past and Present. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. An anthology of readings, with introductory readings, on all aspects of Japanese religious life.

Renondeau, G., Le bouddhisme japonais: Textes fondamentaux de quatre grands moines de Kamakura. Paris: Albin Michel, 1965.

Tanabe, George J., and Willa Jane Tanabe, eds., The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989.

[5.10.2] Nichiren

Anesaki, Masaharu, Nichiren, the Buddhist Prophet. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1916. A fine book on a fascinating personality.

Yampolsky, Philip, ed., Selected Writings of Nichiren. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. Translations of Nichiren's "five major writings."

See also the articles, "Original Enlightenment Thought in the Nichiren Tradition" and "The Matsumoto Debate," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice.

[5.10.3] Pure Land

Andreasen, Esben. Popular Buddhism in Japan: Shin Buddhist Religion and Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997.

Bloom, Alfred, Shinran's Gospel of Pure Grace. Tucson: University of Arizong Press, 1965. The standard work on Shinran.

Dobbins, James C., Jodo Shinshu: Shin Buddhism in Medieval Japan. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Hirota, Dennis, trans. and ed. No Abode: The Record Of Ippen. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997. Record of a thirteenth century leader in the Pure Land movement.

McCallum, Donald F., Zenkoji and Its Icon: A Study in Medieval Japanese Religious Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. Well-written, multi-disciplinary approach to a Pure Land icon tradition in its political, social, and doctrinal context.

Rogers, Minor and Ann, Rennyo: the Second Founder of Shin Buddhism. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1991.

See also Ketalaar, Of Heretics and Martyrs, above; and the articles, "The Illustrated Biography of Ippen" and "Buddhist Chaplains in the Field of Battle," in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice..

[5.10.4] Shingon

Hakeda, Yoshito S., Kukai, Major Works. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. Translations with a good introduction.

Kasulis, Thomas P., "Truth Words: The Basis of Kukai's Theory of Interpretation," in Lopez, Buddhist Hermeneutics: 257-272.

Kiyota, Minoru, Shingon Buddhism: Theory and Practice. Los Angeles: Buddhist Books International, 1978. Illustrated, sympathetic account.

Tanabe, George J., Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and Knowledge in Early Kamakura Buddhism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992. Translations from Myoe's dream diary, with a very perceptive introduction on the role of the visionary mode in Mahayana Buddhism as a whole.

[5.10.5] Tendai

Groner, Paul, Saicho: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School. Berkeley: Berkeley Buddhist Studies, 1984.

Saso, Michael, Tantric Art and Meditation: The Tendai Tradition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991.

[5.10.6] Zen [M]

Bielefeldt, Carl. Dogen's Manuals of Zen Meditation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Places Dogen's Zen meditation guides in their historical context, but despite the impressive body of historical facts marshaled by the author, he concludes that Dogen's instructions remain a mystery. [M]

Bodiford, William, Soto Zen in Medieval Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Braverman, Arthur, trans., Mud and Water: A Collection of Talks by the Zen Master Bassui. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989.

Brinker, Helmut and Hiroshi Kanazawa. Zen Masters of Meditation in Images and Writings. Translated by Andreas Leisinger. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996.

Colcutt, Martin, Five Mountains: The Rinzai Zen Monastic Institution in Medieval Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981. Well-written history of how Zen became established in Japan. Despite its title, this book also contains interesting information on the history of Soto Zen as well.

Dumoulin, Zen Buddhism: A History. The volume on Japan is the best part of the book.

Heine, Steven, Dogen and the Koan Tradition. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994. Much-needed corrective for the "quietist" interpretation of Dogen (despite what the quietists say, the Shobogenzo is obviously not the product of a mind that spent its time in non-thinking), but unfortunately the writing is impenetrable.

Hoover, Thomas, Zen Culture. New York: Vintage, 1977. The manifestations of Zen in Japanese culture. Tends to ignore the fact that most of the manifestations of "Zen" in Japanese aesthetics can also trace their roots to Tendai and Shinto.

-----, The Zen Experience. New York: New American Library, 1980.

Isshu, Miura and Ruth Fuller Sasaki. The Zen Koan: Its History and Use in Rinzai Zen. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965. A good introduction to Rinzai practice.

Kapleau, Philip, The Three Pillars of Zen. Boston: Beacon Press, 1967. How Zen is practiced in modern Japan. Lectures by Zen masters, interviews, letters, testimonials. Especially good for its numerous accounts of meditation experiences of both Japanese and Westerners.

Kasulis, T. P. Zen Action, Zen Person. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, 1981. An excellent study. Contains the clearest statement of the "quietist" interpretation of Dogen's thought.

Kodera, Takashi James, Dogen's Formative Years in China. Boulder, Colo.: Prajna Press, 1980. A translation of Dogen's journal of his search for Awakening in Sung China.

Kraft, Kenneth, Eloquent Zen: Daito and Early Japanese Zen. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1992. A readable and intelligent study of the life and teachings of one of the men who helped forge an indigenous Japanese form of Rinzai.

-----, ed., Zen: Tradition and Transition. New York: Grove Press, 1988. An excellent collection of articles by scholars and Zen practitioners on Zen/Ch'an, past and present.

Masunaga, Reiho, A Primer of Soto Zen: A Translation of Dogen's Shobogenzo Zuimonki. Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1971. The best introduction to Soto Zen.

Merwin, W. S. and Soiku Shigematsu, Sun at Midnight. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989. Poems by the Muromachi Zen master, Muso

Muso Soseki, Dream Conversations on Buddhism and Zen. Translated by Thomas Cleary. Boston: Shambala, 1994. Letters written in response to questions put by a Kyoto shogun.

Nishijima, Gudo Wafu and Chodo Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo. Surrey: Windbell, 1994, 1996. This is a complete translation, in progress, of Dogen's masterwork. The first two volumes have already appeared.

Nishiyama, Kosen and John Stevens, Shobogenzo. Tokyo: Nakayama Shobo, 1975. The only complete translation of Dogen's masterwork so far completed. The Nishijima translation, above, promises to be an improvement, and is much more easily obtained.

Sanford, James H., Zen-man Ikkyu. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981. An excellent introduction, not only to Ikkyu and his poetry, but also to the Muromachi period as a whole.

Sato, Giei, Unsui: A Diary of Zen Monastic Life. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1973. Illustrated account of all aspects of Rinzai training in Japan, based on the artist's experiences; a humorous, insider's view of Zen.

Tanahashi, Kazuaki, ed., Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985. A very rich anthology.

-----, ed. Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen. Boston: Shambhala, 1999. A readable companion volume to the following anthology.

Waddell, Norman, trans., The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Hakuin. Boston: Shambala, 1994.

-----, trans., The Unborn: Life and Teachings of Zen Master Bankei. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984.

-----, trans., Zen Words for the Heart. Boston: Shambala. A translation, with introduction, of Hakuin's commentary on the Heart Sutra.

Yampolsky, Philip, trans., The Zen Master Hakuin: Selected Writings. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. Translations, introduction, notes. All very well done.

See also the articles, "Reading Others' Minds," A Discussion of Seated Zen," and "Awakening Stories of Zen Women," [W] in Lopez, Buddhism in Practice:.

[5.10.7] Modern Japan

Hardacre, Helen, Kurozumikyo and the New Religions of Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. Focuses on a Shinto-based religion, but includes an introduction that gives the most perceptive analysis available of the New Religions as a whole.

Heisig, James W., and John C. Maraldo, eds., Rude Awakenings: Zen, the Kyoto School, & the Question of Nationalism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996.

Hubbard, Jamie and Paul L. Swanson. Pruning the Bodhi Tree: The Storm Over Critical Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1997. Essays on the modern school of "critical" Buddhism in Japan and the implications of its assertions for post-modern academic scholarship and agendas for social reform.

Ketelaar, James Edward, Of Heretics and Martyrs in Meiji Japan: Buddhism and Its Persecution. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. Sophisticated, informative study of a watershed period in Japanese Buddhist history.

LaFleur, William, Liquid Life: Abortion and Buddhism in Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. A study that reveals a great deal about modern Japanese "funeral" Buddhism and the society in which it operates. [W]

Reader, Ian, Religion in Contemporary Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1991. A general survey.

Sharf, Robert H., "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism," in Lopez, Donald S., Jr., ed., Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism under Colonialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995: 107-160. A fascinating account of how events in the nineteenth century reshaped Zen and influenced the way it was presented to the West. Helps put the following two books into perspective.

Suzuki, D. T., Essays in Zen Buddhism. Series 1, 2, 3. London: Rider, 1949, 1953. A collection of writings by the New Rinzai man who made Zen an English word.

-----, Zen and Japanese Culture. New York: Pantheon, 1959. States the New Rinzai interpretation of Zen's role in shaping Japanese culture.

Victoria, Brian. Zen at War. New York: Weatherhill, 1997. A study of the way in which Zen abbots fostered the spirit of fanatical nationalism in World War II.

[5.11] Chapter 11. Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area

[5.11.1] General Culture and History

Beckwith, Christopher, The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Bell, Sir Charles, Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987. Biography by a British political officer who had a long friendship with his subject.

Chakravarti, B., Cultural History of Bhutan. Vol. 1, From Pre-History to Padmasambhava. Chittaranjan: Hilltop Publishers, 1979.

Snellgrove, David L., The Cultural Heritage of Ladakh. Vol. 1, Central Ladakh. Boulder, Colo.: Prajna Press, 1977.

-----, and Hugh Richardson, A Cultural History of Tibet. New York: Praeger, 1968. Readable. Gives a prominent place to religion.

Stein, R. A., Tibetan Civilization. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 1972. Excellent one-volume treatment; includes much on religion.

Tucci, Giuseppe, The Ancient Civilization of Transhimalaya. Geneva, 1973.

[5.11.2] Bon and Early Buddhism

Bu ston, History of Buddhism (2 vols.), trans., E. Obermiller. Heidelberg: 1931-1932.

Dargyay, Eva M., The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1977.

Demieville, Paul, Le Concile de Lhasa. Paris: Imprimeries Nationale de France, 1952. Describes the debate held in Lhasa between representatives of Indian Mahayana and Chinese Ch'an.

Hoffman, Helmut, Quellen zur Geschichte der tibetischen Bon-Religion. Wiesbaden: FranzSteiner Verlag, 1950. Excellent work on Bon.

Houston, Gary W., Sources for a History of the bSam yas Debate. Sankt Augustin, VGH Wissenschaftsverlag, 1980. Important work on the Lhasa debate.

Karmay, Samten Gyaltsen,The Great Perfection: A Philosophical and Meditative Teaching of Tibetan Buddhism. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988. Best scholarly treatment of the early history of Dzogchen, based on documents from Tun-huang. [M]

Kvaerne, Per, The Bon Religion of Tibet: The Iconography of a Living Tradition. Boston: Shambala. Photographs of Bon artworks and rituals, with an excellent introduction to the religion by one of the foremost scholars in the field.

Lancaster, Lewis, and Whalen Lai, eds., Early Ch'an in China and Tibet. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1980. Includes essays on early Dzogchen. [M]

Ruegg, David Seyfort, Buddha-nature, Mind, and the Problem of Gradualism. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. Densely-written but informative discussion of the Lhasa debate and the 13th and 14th century debate about the debate.

Snellgrove, David L., Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and their Tibetan Successors. Vol. 2. Boston: Shambhala, 1987. The best survey of the early history of Tibetan Buddhism.

-----, The Nine Ways of Bon. London: Oxford University Press, 1967. Short introduction, mostly translated texts.

[5.11.3] Medieval and Modern Buddhism

Allione, Tsultrim, Women of Wisdom. London: Arkana, 1986. A pioneering study of women exemplars in the Tibetan tradition. [W]

Batchelor, Stephen, ed., The Jewel in the Lotus: A Guide to the Buddhist Traditions of Tibet. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987. Translations of short representative texts from each of the four main schools of Tibetan Buddhism, with an excellent introduction by the editor. A good "first book" to read on Tibetan Buddhism.

Berzin, Alexander, trans., The Mahamudra: Eliminating the Darkness of Ignorance, by the Ninth Karmapa, Wang-ch'ug Dor-je. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1978. A translation of an important Mahamudra text. Hard to find, but more reliable than the mass of popular books on Mahamudra. [M]

Beyer, Stephan V., The Cult of Tara. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. A thorough treatment of Tibetan Tantric ritual-meditations as they are actually practiced, together with their historical background. The author based his account on field work among Tibetan refugees in India. The best work on the subject.

Blofeld, John, The Tantric Mysticism of Tibet. New York: Dutton, 1970.

Bosson, James, E., Tibetan Treasury of Aphoristic Jewels. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968. Gems of wisdom from Sakya Pandita.

Cabezon, Jose Ignacia, Buddhism and Language: A Study of Indo-Tibetan Scholasticism. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994. Cross-cultural study of scholasticism, focusing on issues in European Christian and Tibetan Buddhist scholastic traditions.

Cabezon, Jose Ignacio and Roger R. Jackson. eds. Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre. Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1996. Excellent articles on the genres of Tibetan literature, including one of particular interest by Harrison on the history of the Tibetan canon.

Chang, Garma C. C., trans., The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa (2 vols). Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1979.

Cozart, Daniel, Highest Yoga Tantra: An Introduction to the Esoteric Buddhism of Tibet. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications, 1986.

Douglas, Nik, Tibetan Tantric Charms and Amulets. New York: Dover, 1978.

Douglas, Nik, and Meryl White, Karmapa: The Black Hat Lama of Tibet. London: Luzac, 1976. Describes the incarnation line of the Karmapa Black Hats, teachers of the Kagyu sect.

Dowman, Keith, trans., The Flight of the Garuda. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1992. Four Dzogchen texts, one attributed to Padmasambhava, the others dating from the thirteenth, fourteenth, and nineteenth centuries. [M]

-----, Sky Dancer: The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyel. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984.

Ekvall, Robert B., Religious Observances in Tibet: Patterns and Function. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Fremantle, Francesca, and Chogyam Trungpa, trans., The Tibetan Book of the Dead: The Great Liberation Through Hearing in the Bardo. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1978.

Goldstein, Melvyn C. and Matthew T. Kapstein, eds. Buddhism in Contemporary Tibet: Religious Revival and Cultural Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Guenther, Herbert V., trans., Kindly Bent to Ease Us. Part I: Mind; Part II: Meditation; Part III: Wonderment. Berkeley: Dharma Publishing. A translation of a classic work on Dzogchen by Longch'en Rabjam. [M]

-----,Tibetan Buddhism without Mystification. Leiden: Brill, 1966. Translations of four eighteenth-century Gelugpa tracts, with introduction and notes.

Havnevik, Hanna, Tibetan Buddhist Nuns: History, Cultural Norms and Social Reality. Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1989. First monograph on the subject. [W]

Heissig, Walter, The Religions of Mongolia. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979. Interesting account, especially of Buddhist missionary activities.

Hopkins, Jeffrey, Meditation on Emptiness. London: Wisdom Publications, 1983. Authoritative presentation of the teachings of the Gelug school.

-----, The Tantric Distinction: An Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1984. Presents the Gelug view of Tantra as the culmination of all Buddhist practice.

Klein, Anne Carolyn, Meeting the Great Bliss Queen: Buddhists, Feminists, and the Art of the Self. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995. [W]

-----, Path to the Middle: Oral Madhyamika Philosophy in Tibet--The Spoken Scholarship of Kensur Yeshey Tupden. Albany: SUNY Press, 1994. The most extensive account of a Gelug oral tradition in English. Concludes with a translation of a chapter from Tsongkhapa's Illumination of Thought.

Kongtrul, Jamgon, The Torch of Certainty. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1976. Describes meditation practices of Tibetan Buddhism. Some interviews with contemporary teachers. [M]

Lauf, Detlef Ingo, Secret Doctrines of the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1977. Analyzes the symbolism and ritual of the great Tibetan classic.

Lessing, Ferdinand, and Alex Wayman, trans., Fundamentals of the Buddhist Tantras, by Mkhas-grub-rje. The Hague: Mouton, 1968. Useful translation of a schoolman's marginalia on Tsongkhapa's Tantric wntings.

Lopez, Donald, Jr., ed. The Religions of Tibet in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. Readings in virtually every aspect of Tibetan religion aside from philosophical texts.

Lopez, Donald S., Jr., A Study of Svatantrika. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications, 1987. A study of the Gelug interpretation of the Svatantrika Madhyamika school.

McKay, Alex, ed. Pilgrimage in Tibet. London: Curzon, 1998.

Napper, Elizabeth, Dependent-Arising and Emptiness. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1989. Excellent study of the Gelug views on these two topics.

Ortner, Sherry B., Sherpas through Their Rituals. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Interesting study of Tibetan Buddhists in Nepal who came to settle near Mount Everest 450 years ago.

Poppe, Nicholas, The Twelve Deeds of Buddha. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967. Translation of a Mongolian version of the Lalitavistara.

Samuel, Geoffrey, Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. An anthropological study contrasting the shamanic and cleric strands of Tibetan Buddhism. Although the definition of "shamanism" is so broad as to be practically useless, the book contains a great deal of information on Tibetan Buddhism, past and present, hard to find elsewhere.

Sierksma, Fokke, Tibet's Terrifying Deities. The Hague: Mouton, 1966. Freudian interpretation of aspects of Tibetan art and culture.

Sopa, Geshe Lhundup, and Jeffrey Hopkins, Practice and Theory of Tibetan Buddhism. New York: Grove Press, 1976. Translations of texts on meditation systems and doctrine, emphasizing the Gelug school. [M]

Thurman, Robert A. F., The Central Philosophy of Tibet. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. A study and translation of Tsongkhapa's Essence of True Eloquence.

-----, Essential Tibetan Buddhism. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1995. An anthology of texts in very readable translations by one of America's foremost apologists for the Tibetan vision of the Buddhist tradition. [M]

Tucci, Giuseppe, The Religions of Tibet. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980 (reprint). A detailed treatment, although somewhat dated.

Williams, Paul. The Reflexive Nature of Awareness (Rang Rig). London: Curzon, 1997.

Willis, Janice D., ed., Feminine Ground: Essays on Women and Tibet. Ithaca: Snow Lion, Publications, 1989. [W]

Willson, Martin, trans., In Praise of Tara: Songs to the Saviouress. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1986. Readable translations of texts related to the cult of Tara. [W]


[5.12.1] General

Prebish, Charles S. Luminous Passage: The Practice and Study of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. A rather superficial survey of what American Buddhism has been and-in the author's eyes-should be. Intended as a companion volume to the following collection, but adds very little aside from masses of undigested data.

---- and Kenneth K. Tanaka, eds. The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. Essays of widely varying quality covering issues both in Euro-American and in Asian-American Buddhism. Among the best essays: Chandler on Chinese-American Buddhism, Fronsdal on Vipassana, Hurst on Soka Gakkai, Nattier on varieties of American Buddhism, and Verhoeven on Paul Carus.

Tweed, Thomas A., and Stephen Prothero, eds. Asian Religions in America: A Documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Anthology of readings covering the many facets of the importation of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism into America. The earliest readings are fascinating and well-chosen. The more recent readings are heavily slanted toward the mass media.

Williams, Duncan Ryuken, and Christopher S. Queen, eds. American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Surrey, U.K.: Curzon Press, 1998. Proceedings from a conference held at Harvard.

[5.12.2] Asian-American Buddhism

Farber, Don, and Rick Fields. Taking Refuge in L.A.: Life in a Vietnamese Buddhist Temple. New York: Aperture Foundation, 1987.

Hing, Bill Ong. Making and Remaking Asian America through Immigration Policy, 1950-1990. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993.

Hurst, Jane D. Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism and the Soka Gakkai in America: The Ethos of a New Religious Movement. New York: Garland Publishers Inc., 1992.

Kashima, Tetsuden. Buddhism in America: The Social Organization of an Ethnic Religious Institution. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977. Describes in detail the Jodo-shin-shu Buddhist Churches of America (BCA).

Numrich, Paul David. Old Wisdom in the New World: Americanization in Two Immigrant Theravada Buddhist Temples. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1996. A groundbreaking study. Tries to explain developments in immigrant temples entirely from the American side, with little reference to the immigrants' Asian background.

Tuck, Donald R. Buddhist Churches of America: Jodo Shinshu. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1987.

[5.12.3] Euro-Buddhism

Albanese, Cathenne L. America: Religions and Religion. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1981. Sets the coming of Buddhism in context.

Almond, Philip C. The British Discovery of Buddhism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Batchelor, Stephen. The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1994. "Western Culture" here means Europe. Interesting facts and insights, but poorly organized.

Boucher, Sandy. Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993. Interviews a wide range of women at the forefront and near-forefront of the Euro-Buddhist movement. Similar to Friedman, below, but with broader range and less depth. [W]

Campbell, Bruce F. Ancient Wisdom Revived, A History of the Theosophical Movement. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. Describes the movement in whose wake many Eastern ideas came into Euro-Amencan culture.

Chadwick, David. Crooked Cucumber: The Life and Zen Teachings of Shunryu Suzuki. New York: Broadway Books, 1999. A well-researched and well-written account of the sad story of Suzuki's life, work, and teachings.

Clarke, J. J. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1997. The best general survey of the topic.

Conze, Edward. Buddhist Studies, 1934-1972. London: Bruno Cassirer, 1967.
Coward, Harold G. "Karma and Rebirth in Western Psychology," in Neufeldt, Ronald W., ed., Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments. Albany: SUNY Press, 1986. An account of Jung's debt to Buddhist and Hindu doctrines.

Dickstein, Morris. Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties. New York: Basic Books, 1977.

Dresser, Marianne, ed. Buddhist Women on the Edge: Contemporary Perspectives from the Western Frontier. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1996. [W]

Ellwood, Robert S. Alternative Altars: Unconventional and Eastern Spirituality in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979. Although only one chapter treats the Zen of the Beat Generation, this is an important work on "excursus religion" in America.

-----. Religious and Spiritual Groups in Modern America. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Classic account of "cults," with appropriate setting of context in first two chapters; valuable comments on Asian imports and the religio-environmental niche they occupy.

Eppsteiner, Fred, ed. The Path of Compassion: Writings on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1988.

Fields, Rick. How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America. Boston: Shambhala, 1992. And a very readable narrative at that. Excellent introduction to the topic, although tends to slight Asian-American Buddhism.

Friedman, Lenore. Meetings with Remarkable Women: Buddhist Teachers in America. Boston: Shambhala, 1987. [W]

Graham, Dom Aelred. Zen Catholicism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963.

Gross, Rita M. Buddhism after Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. [W]

Gudmunsen, Chris. Wittgenstein and Buddhism. London: Macmillan, 1977.

Henderson, Harold. Catalyst for Controversy: Paul Carus of Open Court. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

Humphreys, Christmas. Sixty Years of Buddhism in England (1907-1967). London: Buddhist Society, 1968.

Hunter, Louise. Buddhism in Hawaii: Its Impact on a Yankee Community. Honolulu: Univer-sity of Hawaii Press, 1971.

Inada, Kenneth K. and Nolan Jacobsen, eds. Buddhism and American Thinkers. Albany: SUNY Press, 1984. An anthology of writings by American intellectuals in a wide range of fields.

Jackson, Carl T. The Oriental Religions and American Thought. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Johnston, William. Christian Zen. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.

-----. Silent Music: The Silence of Meditation. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. Father Johnston has practiced Zen in Japan for over twenty years and has done much to introduce the use of some Buddhist techniques into Catholic contemplation. He is a major participant in the Christian-Zen dialogue.

Lang, David Marshall. The Balavariani (Barlaam and Josaphat). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. The story of how the Buddha became canonized as a saint of the Catholic church.

-----. The Wisdom of Balahvar: A Christian Legend of the Buddha. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

Layman, Emma. Buddhism in America. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976. A pioneering study.

Lopez, Donald S., Jr., ed. Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism under Colonialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Essays of varying quality on "Orientalism" in the early Western study of Buddhism. The essay by Sharf on Suzuki, however, is very enlightening on the "Occidentalist" attitudes of the man who did more than anyone else to introduce Zen to the West.

Merton, Thomas. Zen and the Birds of Appetite. New York: New Directions, 1968. Collection of essays on Buddhism and Christianity.

Nakagawa, Soen. Endless Vow: The Zen Path of Soen Nakagawa. Presented with an introduction by Eido Tai Shimano, compiled and translated by Kazuaki Tanahashi and Rodo Sherry Chayat. (Boston: Shambala Publications, 1996). Life and writings of one of the most active Rinzai missionaries to the West.

Oliver, Ian P. Buddhism in Britain. London: Rider, 1979.

Peiris, William. The Western Contribution to Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1973.

Prebish, Charles S. American Buddhism. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1979. A Buddhologist passes judgment on a variety of attempts to bring Buddhism to America. Has now been superceded by the author's book, Luminous Passage (under 5.12.1, above).

Riepe, Dale. The Philosophy of India and Its Impact on Amencan Thought. Springfield, Il.: Charles Thomas, 1970.

Seager, Richard Hughes. The World's Parliament of Religions: The East/West Encounter, Chicago, 1893. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992. An excellent study.

Sedlar, Jean W. India and the Greek World: A Study in the Transmission of Culture. Totowa, N. J.: Rowman & Littlefield,1980. Detailed analysis, often with little concrete result.

Tamney, Joseph B. American Society in the Buddhist Mirror. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992.

Tsomo, Karma Lekshe, ed. Buddhism Through American Women's Eyes. (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1995). [W]

-----, ed. Sakyadhita: Daughters of the Buddha. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications, 1988. The results of a conference on the status of Buddhist nuns throughout the world. [W]

Tweed, Thomas. The American Encounter with Buddhism, 1844-1912. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992. A scholarly account of why Buddhism failed to take hold in Victorian America.

Tworkov, Helen. Zen in America. New York: Kodansha America, 1994. Interviews and profiles of five American Zen teachers, together with an assessment of current trends in the Zen movement. [W]

Welbon, Guy Richard. The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western Interpreters. Chicago: Univer-sity of Chicago Press, 1968. A readable history of the West's intellectual encounter with Buddhism as instanced in the problem of nirvana.

West, Martin L. Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. Read with Sedlar.

Willson, A. Leslie. A Mythical Image: The Ideal of India in German Romanticism. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1964.


A full listing of Buddhist Web sites is available at DharmaNet:

What follows is a selected list of some fairly to very serious sites.


Access to Insight:

Asian Classics Input Project:
Buddhist Canon Translation Project:
Buddhist Databases & Input Projects:
Buddhist Input Project News:
Electronic Buddhadharma Society:
Sri Lankan Tripitaka Project:


Asynchronous School of Buddhist Dialectics:

Australian National University:

1. Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library:
2. Buddhist Studies WWW Virtual Library:
3. Social Sciences WWW Virtual Library:
4. Tibetan Studies WWW Virtual Library:

BoW: Buddhism on the Web (Thailand):
Buddhapia Network (Korea):
Cornell AsiaLink:
Jogyejong Buddhist Web (Korea):
Journal of Buddhist Ethics:
National Chung-Hsin University Buddhism Page (Taiwan):
Numata Center for Buddhist Translation & Research (Berkeley):
Peng's Buddhist Resource List:
UCB Buddhism Program (UCalifornia at Berkeley):
UK Association for Buddhist Studies:
Urbana-Champaign Buddhism Study Group:
Vipassana Research Publications of America (Seattle):

[7] Final note: We hope to update this bibliography periodically, so any suggestions for improvements will be welcome.

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Last updated: September 16, 1999

This site is maintained by Gregory M. Smith